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Endodontics is the treatment of pulp (the so called tooth nerve) injuries when infected by failing to act over initial stages. When bacterial toxins reach the nerve, inflammation follows the infection of such nerve, causing pain. As the infection progresses, the area becomes necrotic turning then to an abscess, which can cause fever and infectious disorders. Failing to act on these stages, teeth can be lost.


A cavity is the tooth structural destruction produced by oral bacterial acids. Gradual dental check-ups are helpful since prognosis is much more favourable when cavities are diagnosed at an early stage.

Enamel is the outermost layer of the tooth. When cavities are located in this area, the filling prognosis (a manoeuvre to repair the destruction caused by pathogens) is very good since this layer is compact and it is easy to avoid bacterial toxins to penetrate the pulp (the so called “nerve” of the tooth).

If cavities go beyond the tooth enamel, dental destruction is then found in the following layer: the dentin tissue. Dentin is no longer a compact layer as the enamel was, instead is formed by a microscopic structure, with very small ducts through which bacterial toxins can pass and thus jeopardizing the integrity of the pulp.

If no intervention has been done in any of the two previous stages, the infection then reaches the pulp, causing the destruction of the cavity formed by vessels and nerves that nourish the tooth, resulting in pain, abscesses caused by necrosis and damaging the integrity of the tooth.